Land surveying is a vital part of the design and construction process of various aspects like roads, buildings, etc. Land surveys are done to mark boundaries, map the topography of land, create elevations for buildings to ward off floods, to ascertain that buildings have been constructed as per particular recommendations, to map river bottoms for dredging, layout photo control for aerial photography, map the layout of tunnels, airports, and so much more.
Land survey activities must be done with a high degree of accuracy to attain excellent results. Surveyors require special equipment to execute their tasks and they may include the following:
GPS equipment- It uses satellites to conduct surveys by taking the variations in height between two points along with the distance and directions.
Tripod equipment- They are used to hold surveying equipment like theodolites, total stations, levels, and transit. They should be unwavering while in use because a slight change in position requires the repeat of a survey. Tripod equipment can get waterlogged and produce inaccurate results, so their material should be carefully selected.
Measurement equipment- The most common of them all is the measuring wheel. It is usually revolved along a particular distance while an odometer counts its revolutions.
Theodolites- They are used to realize horizontal and vertical angles, elevation and height.
Laser levels- They give off beams of laser light that is used to determine elevation. They are different based on the various tasks necessary during construction. They can be either manual or self-level. Self-level lasers do not require being adjusted to determine levels, while manual lasers must be operated by a person.
Laser receivers- They are combined with laser levels to cover wider areas during land surveys. They pick up the beams of light from the laser levels and make a sound once the right level has been achieved. They make the use of laser levels outdoors and on very bright days bearable.
Single or dual grade lasers- They are utilized when slopes require being assessed. Single grade lasers calculate gradients for single planes, while dual grade lasers determine the gradient of two planes at the same time.
The rotating lasers produce a beam of light from a beacon to assess an area over 360 degrees, while straight line lasers are utilized to produce crosses or plumb lines.
Pipe lasers- They are used during the installation of new pipes, drains or sewers. When a pipe is placed in a trench, they are used to determine the accurate placement of the rest of the pipes on the same line and gradient.